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Related post: leishmaniasis in the African Sudan, and a virtual expedition was mounted on the island of Mauke of the Cook Island group by Dr. Ottesen with the help of Drs. McCarthy and Steel and Mr. Poindexter. The Cook Island study is a unique long-term follow-up of a project carried out 17 years eaiiier. Needless to say, these studies were possible only with the helpful collaboration of Pyridium 100 Mg foreign colleagues. HONORS AND AWARDS All of the permanent professionaJ staff, and Buy Pyridium Online many of the senior non-tenured staff serve on Editorial Boards of scientific journals ^nd/or frequently review manuscripts for journals. Such activities reflect the high standing of LPD scientists by professional peers. Pyridium Mg Also many of the staff serve on Ad Hoc Committees for a granting agencies or foundations, and are invited to participate in workshops and scientific meetings. Such activities are generally not cited here individually unless felt to deserve special mention. Dr. Sher was perhaps the most active of LPD staff on the national and international lecture circuit, giving invited talks or name lectures at the N.Y. Blood Center, at Dartmouth and the University of Texas at San Antonio, and the B. McGhee Lecture for the Am. Soc. of Parasitologists. He was one of the organizers of the First Buy Pyridium African Congress of Immunology held in Nairobi, and serves on the Burroughs- Wellcome Fellowship Committee. Drs. Cheever and Sher were invited speakers at the Int'l Congress of Schisto in Brazil. Dr. Nutman was a Wellcome Visiting Scientist at Imperial College in England, and also served on an Ad Hoc committee for WHOADR. Dr. Neva spoke to FDA Pyridium Cost and the Blood Banking Assoc, on dangers of transmission of parasites by transfusion. 17-2 RESEARCH PROGRESS Immunology and Cell Biology Section Tangled cytokine trail in experimental Schistosomiasis. The down-regulation produced by IL-10 inyolyes interaction with other cytokines. Last year it was concluded that the cytokine IL-10 was responsible for suppressing INF-gamma actiyation of macrophages in killing schistosomulae. The actual mechanism was shown to be inhibition of production of toxic nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. But IL-10 was also found to block production of another cytokine, TNF-alpha. In addition, the cytokines TNF-beta and IL-4 were found to act with IL-10 in inhibiting actiyated macrophages yia a pathway independent of TNF-alpha (Oswald, James Pyridium Canada and Wynn). So, the mechanism of IL-10 immunosuppression is more complex than first surmised. New Phenazopyridine Hydrochloride Pyridium method of semi-quantitatiye PCR to assay transcription of cytokines. By extraction of MRNA from tissue specimens, reyerse-transcribing it, and performing PCR using primers specific for Pyridium In Canada various cytokines, it is f>ossible to detect presence and estimate relative amounts of cytokines expressed in the specimen. This technique was applied to schistosome egg granulomas in mouse lungs. Results with this approach, plus the use of anti-cytokine monoclonal antibodies, suggest that IL-4 and other Th2 cytokines may be the most critical for granuloma formation (Wynn and Eltoum). TTiis technique should be esp>ecially useful in following immunologic events over time and under conditions in which cytokines are either consumed, broken down, or otherwise difficult to assay directly. Thl suppression produced by schistosome infection results in delayed clearance of concomitant virus infection. Schistosome Pyridium 100 Phenazopyridine Pyridium Pyridium Discontinued infected mice later infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus were found to have greatly delayed clearance of the virus from the liver, spleen and lungs. Since the animals showed inhibition of cytolytic Otc Pyridium T cell responses to vaccinia, results were attributed to a suppressed Thl response that occurs in the early stages of the schistosome infection. Whether schistosomiasis in humans has the same effect on certain viral infections, such as Pyridium Otc hepatitis B, can only be speculated (Actor, BuUer of LVD, NIAID and J. Berzofsky of MEI, NCI). Search for Schistosome vaccine continues. New candidate recombinant antigens. The recombinant expressing paramyosin in a BCG vector was able to induce a Thl type cell- mediated response, but gave no significant protection in vaccinated mice. Negative results may have been due to the low level of paramyosin expressed by the vector and a slower growth rate by the BCG construct than by wild type BCG. New recombinants have been constructed and will soon be tested; one expressing cercarial elastase and another expressing glutathione-S-transferase (Actor, Oswald, Molecular Vaccines, Inc. and J. McKerrow of Univ. of Calif). 17-3 Use of T cell lines and clones to identify protective antigens. T cell lines and clones were produced from niice that had been immunized with soluble whole worm antigen plus BCG. One T cell clone (B) and one T cell line (1S2) were derived which in cell transfer experiments confer protection. Clone B gives a Thl patter of cytokines and the 1S2 line shows predominantly a Thl cytokine pattern. Neither the cell line or clone recognize paramyosin. Expression clones from a CDNA library are being screened for cytokine responses from the T cell clone to try to identify the relevant antigen(s) (Oswald, James Pyridium Uk and Williams). Immune regulation in experimental toxoplasmosis. Identification of T. gondii antigen responsible for T cell cytotoxicity and pathway of Class I MHC presentation. Several approaches are being used to Pyridium Phenazopyridine identify the parasite antigen recognized by Cd8+ effector cells that result in cytotoxicity of toxoplasma infected cells. One approach is to fractionate soluble T. gondii antigen which Pyridium 200 Mg reacts with infected bone marrow Pyridium Tribromide macrophages and destroys them. The other approach is to identify peptides that sensitize L cells transfected with Pyridium Plus Class I MHC for recognition of cytotoxic lymphocytes. These results suggest a requirement for cellular internalization in the processing of soluble antigen by bone marrow macrophages for Class I restricted recognition (Denkers, Gazzinelli). Down regulation of macrophage mediated killing of T. gondii and T. cruzi by cytokines. Both IL-10 and IL-4 were found to inhibit kiUing of Pyridium Tablets intracellular toxoplasma by INF-gamma activated macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion. The actual mechanism of parasite destruction was by nitrogen oxides (NO). TGF-beta had even more potent down-regulatory effects, and its action was potentiated by IL-10 and IL-4. (Gazzinelli and Morse of LIP, NIAID). The same cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) were shown to inhibit killing of T cruzi by INF-gamma activated macrophages (Gazzinelli and Oswald). Role of NK cells in cytokine response to Toxoplasma. The main cytokine mediator of resistance to Toxoplasma is considered to be INF-gamma. In order to Pyridium 200 examine the role played by NK cells in the INF-gamma response, spleen cells from B and T lymphocyte.- deficient mice were found to produce ENF-gamma on exposure to Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The INF-gamma response required viable organisms, and was abolished by depletion of NK cells, and required macrophage accessory cells. SCID mice depleted of NK cells are also less resistant to toxo than untreated mice. Thus, NK cells clearly can be activated to produce INF-gamma (Gazzinelli, Sher and Oswald). Cell mediated responses in Leishmanial infection. Cytokine mRNA in bone marrow of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. It is well-known that parasite antigen-specific anergy, as measured by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests and lymphocyte proliferation, is a feature of
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